Background: 小狗 of all sizes are occasionally born with an abnormal communication of blood vessels in the liver (intrahepatic) or outside the liver (extrahepatic) that diverts blood flow around, rather than through the liver. The clinical signs resulting from this developmental problem include failure to grow and thrive, lethargy, depression, and abnormal behaviors including but not limited to blindness, tremors, seizures, star gazing, head pressing, and ataxia (being off balance). Extrahepatic shunts are most common in small breed dogs (especially Pugs and Yorkshire Terriers). 手术 is most often indicated in these patients and is highly successful. Intrahepatic shunts (IHPSS) are most common in larger breed dogs. Breed dispositions include the Labrador Retriever, Flat-Coat Retriever, Irish Wolfhound, and Bernese Mountain Dog, but all breeds may be affected (including the rare small breed). Traditional treatment of intrahepatic shunt has also been surgical using a variety of different techniques and devices. However, the shunt is often difficult to identify within the liver, challenging to dissect, and challenging to partially occlude. Frequently a second surgical procedure is necessary later in the life when the process must be repeated. The procedures have also been associated with unacceptably high complication rates including death (7-66% perioperative death rates have been reported). An endovascular (inside the vessel) repair technique has been developed and perfected that eliminates the need for open surgery, eliminates patient pain and discomfort associated with surgery, shortens hospitalization, and is associated with a very low perioperative mortality rate <5%). MSU has never lost a patient in the perioperative period. Instead of opening the abdomen and part of the chest to make the repair, the entire procedure is performed using catheters, stents, and coils from within the blood vessels themselves. The entire procedure is performed via a <5mm incision over the jugular vein in the neck. The procedure is called a Percutaneous Transjugular Coil Embolization (PTCE).